MODULE ONE

# What is a SNARK?

In the first Module of our introductory series, we learn about the initial set of building blocks in zero knowledge – a SNARK and how different proving systems work. We will cover what a SNARK is, how they are used and how they are built. This is the first of 3 modules by Dan Boneh – Professor of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, Stanford University.

**What you’ll learn:**

– What is a SNARK

– Uses for SNARKs

– Explanation of arithmetic circuits

– Preprocessing argument systems

– Requirements of argument systems

– Types of preprocessing

– Different proving systems and their characteristics

– The SNARK software system

– Definitions of “knowledge soundness” and “zero knowledge”

**SNARKs**

- A general approach to constructing a trusted setup SNARK: Succinct Non-Interactive Arguments via Linear Interactive Proofs
- The Groth’16 SNARK
- The Plonk preprocessing universal SNARK. See also this writeup.
- The Marlinpreprocessing universal SNARK.
- The Spartan SNARK using multilinear polynomials. So also this improvement.
- STARK: a post-quantum transparent proof system, a tutorial.
- The Bulletproofs system: a transparent proof system without pairings. Here is a variation with slightly shorter proofs. There is also a generalization.

ZK Whiteboard Sessions is an educational series on all things zero knowledge. Produced by ZK Hack and powered by Polygon – we’ll be releasing a new module every week!

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